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Thinking in C++, 2nd ed. Volume 1

©2000 by Bruce Eckel

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10: Name Control

Creating names is a fundamental activity in programming, and when a project gets large, the number of names can easily be overwhelming.

C++ allows you a great deal of control over the creation and visibility of names, where storage for those names is placed, and linkage for names.

The static keyword was overloaded in C before people knew what the term “overload” meant, and C++ has added yet another meaning. The underlying concept with all uses of static seems to be “something that holds its position” (like static electricity), whether that means a physical location in memory or visibility within a file.

In this chapter, you’ll learn how static controls storage and visibility, and an improved way to control access to names via C++’s namespace feature. You’ll also find out how to use functions that were written and compiled in C.

Static elements from C

In both C and C++ the keyword static has two basic meanings, which unfortunately often step on each other’s toes:

  1. Allocated once at a fixed address; that is, the object is created in a special static data area rather than on the stack each time a function is called. This is the concept of static storage.
  2. Local to a particular translation unit (and local to a class scope in C++, as you will see later). Here, static controls the visibility of a name, so that name cannot be seen outside the translation unit or class. This also describes the concept of linkage, which determines what names the linker will see.

This section will look at the above meanings of static as they were inherited from C.

static variables inside functions

When you create a local variable inside a function, the compiler allocates storage for that variable each time the function is called by moving the stack pointer down an appropriate amount. If there is an initializer for the variable, the initialization is performed each time that sequence point is passed.

Sometimes, however, you want to retain a value between function calls. You could accomplish this by making a global variable, but then that variable would not be under the sole control of the function. C and C++ allow you to create a static object inside a function; the storage for this object is not on the stack but instead in the program’s static data area. This object is initialized only once, the first time the function is called, and then retains its value between function invocations. For example, the following function returns the next character in the array each time the function is called:

//: C10:StaticVariablesInfunctions.cpp
#include "../require.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

char oneChar(const char* charArray = 0) {
  static const char* s;
  if(charArray) {
    s = charArray;
    return *s;
    require(s, "un-initialized s");
  if(*s == '\0')
    return 0;
  return *s++;

char* a = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";

int main() {
  // oneChar(); // require() fails
  oneChar(a); // Initializes s to a
  char c;
  while((c = oneChar()) != 0)
    cout << c << endl;
} ///:~

The static char* s holds its value between calls of oneChar( ) because its storage is not part of the stack frame of the function, but is in the static storage area of the program. When you call oneChar( ) with a char* argument, s is assigned to that argument, and the first character of the array is returned. Each subsequent call to oneChar( ) without an argument produces the default value of zero for charArray, which indicates to the function that you are still extracting characters from the previously initialized value of s. The function will continue to produce characters until it reaches the null terminator of the character array, at which point it stops incrementing the pointer so it doesn’t overrun the end of the array.

But what happens if you call oneChar( ) with no arguments and without previously initializing the value of s? In the definition for s, you could have provided an initializer,

static char* s = 0;

but if you do not provide an initializer for a static variable of a built-in type, the compiler guarantees that variable will be initialized to zero (converted to the proper type) at program start-up. So in oneChar( ), the first time the function is called, s is zero. In this case, the if(!s) conditional will catch it.

The initialization above for s is very simple, but initialization for static objects (like all other objects) can be arbitrary expressions involving constants and previously declared variables and functions.

You should be aware that the function above is very vulnerable to multithreading problems; whenever you design functions containing static variables you should keep multithreading issues in mind.

static class objects inside functions

The rules are the same for static objects of user-defined types, including the fact that some initialization is required for the object. However, assignment to zero has meaning only for built-in types; user-defined types must be initialized with constructor calls. Thus, if you don’t specify constructor arguments when you define the static object, the class must have a default constructor. For example,

//: C10:StaticObjectsInFunctions.cpp
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class X {
  int i;
  X(int ii = 0) : i(ii) {} // Default
  ~X() { cout << "X::~X()" << endl; }

void f() {
  static X x1(47);
  static X x2; // Default constructor required

int main() {
} ///:~

The static objects of type X inside f( ) can be initialized either with the constructor argument list or with the default constructor. This construction occurs the first time control passes through the definition, and only the first time.

Static object destructors

Destructors for static objects (that is, all objects with static storage, not just local static objects as in the example above) are called when main( ) exits or when the Standard C library function exit( ) is explicitly called. In most implementations, main( ) just calls exit( ) when it terminates. This means that it can be dangerous to call exit( ) inside a destructor because you can end up with infinite recursion. Static object destructors are not called if you exit the program using the Standard C library function abort( ).

You can specify actions to take place when leaving main( ) (or calling exit( )) by using the Standard C library function atexit( ). In this case, the functions registered by atexit( ) may be called before the destructors for any objects constructed before leaving main( ) (or calling exit( )).

Like ordinary destruction, destruction of static objects occurs in the reverse order of initialization. However, only objects that have been constructed are destroyed. Fortunately, the C++ development tools keep track of initialization order and the objects that have been constructed. Global objects are always constructed before main( ) is entered and destroyed as main( ) exits, but if a function containing a local static object is never called, the constructor for that object is never executed, so the destructor is also not executed. For example,

//: C10:StaticDestructors.cpp
// Static object destructors
#include <fstream>
using namespace std;
ofstream out("statdest.out"); // Trace file

class Obj {
  char c; // Identifier
  Obj(char cc) : c(cc) {
    out << "Obj::Obj() for " << c << endl;
  ~Obj() {
    out << "Obj::~Obj() for " << c << endl;

Obj a('a'); // Global (static storage)
// Constructor & destructor always called

void f() {
  static Obj b('b');

void g() {
  static Obj c('c');

int main() {
  out << "inside main()" << endl;
  f(); // Calls static constructor for b
  // g() not called
  out << "leaving main()" << endl;
} ///:~

In Obj, the char c acts as an identifier so the constructor and destructor can print out information about the object they’re working on. The Obj a is a global object, so the constructor is always called for it before main( ) is entered, but the constructors for the static Obj b inside f( ) and the static Obj c inside g( ) are called only if those functions are called.

To demonstrate which constructors and destructors are called, only f( ) is called. The output of the program is

Obj::Obj() for a
inside main()
Obj::Obj() for b
leaving main()
Obj::~Obj() for b
Obj::~Obj() for a

The constructor for a is called before main( ) is entered, and the constructor for b is called only because f( ) is called. When main( ) exits, the destructors for the objects that have been constructed are called in reverse order of their construction. This means that if g( ) is called, the order in which the destructors for b and c are called depends on whether f( ) or g( ) is called first.

Notice that the trace file ofstream object out is also a static object – since it is defined outside of all functions, it lives in the static storage area. It is important that its definition (as opposed to an extern declaration) appear at the beginning of the file, before there is any possible use of out. Otherwise, you’ll be using an object before it is properly initialized.

In C++, the constructor for a global static object is called before main( ) is entered, so you now have a simple and portable way to execute code before entering main( ) and to execute code with the destructor after exiting main( ). In C, this was always a trial that required you to root around in the compiler vendor’s assembly-language startup code.

Controlling linkage

Ordinarily, any name at file scope (that is, not nested inside a class or function) is visible throughout all translation units in a program. This is often called external linkage because at link time the name is visible to the linker everywhere, external to that translation unit. Global variables and ordinary functions have external linkage.

There are times when you’d like to limit the visibility of a name. You might like to have a variable at file scope so all the functions in that file can use it, but you don’t want functions outside that file to see or access that variable, or to inadvertently cause name clashes with identifiers outside the file.

An object or function name at file scope that is explicitly declared static is local to its translation unit (in the terms of this book, the cpp file where the declaration occurs). That name has internal linkage. This means that you can use the same name in other translation units without a name clash.

One advantage to internal linkage is that the name can be placed in a header file without worrying that there will be a clash at link time. Names that are commonly placed in header files, such as const definitions and inline functions, default to internal linkage. (However, const defaults to internal linkage only in C++; in C it defaults to external linkage.) Note that linkage refers only to elements that have addresses at link/load time; thus, class declarations and local variables have no linkage.


Here’s an example of how the two meanings of static can cross over each other. All global objects implicitly have static storage class, so if you say (at file scope),

int a = 0;

then storage for a will be in the program’s static data area, and the initialization for a will occur once, before main( ) is entered. In addition, the visibility of a is global across all translation units. In terms of visibility, the opposite of static (visible only in this translation unit) is extern, which explicitly states that the visibility of the name is across all translation units. So the definition above is equivalent to saying

extern int a = 0;

But if you say instead,

static int a = 0;

all you’ve done is change the visibility, so a has internal linkage. The storage class is unchanged – the object resides in the static data area whether the visibility is static or extern.

Once you get into local variables, static stops altering the visibility and instead alters the storage class.

If you declare what appears to be a local variable as extern, it means that the storage exists elsewhere (so the variable is actually global to the function). For example:

//: C10:LocalExtern.cpp
//{L} LocalExtern2
#include <iostream>

int main() {
  extern int i;
  std::cout << i;
} ///:~

//: C10:LocalExtern2.cpp {O}
int i = 5;

With function names (for non-member functions), static and extern can only alter visibility, so if you say

extern void f();

it’s the same as the unadorned declaration

void f();

and if you say,

static void f();

it means f( ) is visible only within this translation unit – this is sometimes called file static.

Other storage class specifiers

You will see static and extern used commonly. There are two other storage class specifiers that occur less often. The auto specifier is almost never used because it tells the compiler that this is a local variable. auto is short for “automatic” and it refers to the way the compiler automatically allocates storage for the variable. The compiler can always determine this fact from the context in which the variable is defined, so auto is redundant.

A register variable is a local (auto) variable, along with a hint to the compiler that this particular variable will be heavily used so the compiler ought to keep it in a register if it can. Thus, it is an optimization aid. Various compilers respond differently to this hint; they have the option to ignore it. If you take the address of the variable, the register specifier will almost certainly be ignored. You should avoid using register because the compiler can usually do a better job of optimization than you.


Although names can be nested inside classes, the names of global functions, global variables, and classes are still in a single global name space. The static keyword gives you some control over this by allowing you to give variables and functions internal linkage (that is, to make them file static). But in a large project, lack of control over the global name space can cause problems. To solve these problems for classes, vendors often create long complicated names that are unlikely to clash, but then you’re stuck typing those names. (A typedef is often used to simplify this.) It’s not an elegant, language-supported solution.

You can subdivide the global name space into more manageable pieces using the namespace feature of C++. The namespace keyword, similar to class, struct, enum, and union, puts the names of its members in a distinct space. While the other keywords have additional purposes, the creation of a new name space is the only purpose for namespace.

Creating a namespace

The creation of a namespace is notably similar to the creation of a class:

//: C10:MyLib.cpp
namespace MyLib {
  // Declarations
int main() {} ///:~

This produces a new namespace containing the enclosed declarations. There are significant differences from class, struct, union and enum, however:

//: C10:Header1.h
#ifndef HEADER1_H
#define HEADER1_H
namespace MyLib {
  extern int x;
  void f();
  // ...
#endif // HEADER1_H ///:~
//: C10:Header2.h
#ifndef HEADER2_H
#define HEADER2_H
#include "Header1.h"
// Add more names to MyLib
namespace MyLib { // NOT a redefinition!
  extern int y;
  void g();
  // ...
#endif // HEADER2_H ///:~
//: C10:Continuation.cpp
#include "Header2.h"
int main() {} ///:~
//: C10:BobsSuperDuperLibrary.cpp
namespace BobsSuperDuperLibrary {
  class Widget { /* ... */ };
  class Poppit { /* ... */ };
  // ...
// Too much to type! I’ll alias it:
namespace Bob = BobsSuperDuperLibrary;
int main() {} ///:~

Unnamed namespaces

Each translation unit contains an unnamed namespace that you can add to by saying “namespace” without an identifier:

//: C10:UnnamedNamespaces.cpp
namespace {
  class Arm  { /* ... */ };
  class Leg  { /* ... */ };
  class Head { /* ... */ };
  class Robot {
    Arm arm[4];
    Leg leg[16];
    Head head[3];
    // ...
  } xanthan;
  int i, j, k;
int main() {} ///:~

The names in this space are automatically available in that translation unit without qualification. It is guaranteed that an unnamed space is unique for each translation unit. If you put local names in an unnamed namespace, you don’t need to give them internal linkage by making them static.

C++ deprecates the use of file statics in favor of the unnamed namespace.


You can inject a friend declaration into a namespace by declaring it within an enclosed class:

//: C10:FriendInjection.cpp
namespace Me {
  class Us {
    friend void you();
int main() {} ///:~

Now the function you( ) is a member of the namespace Me.

If you introduce a friend within a class in the global namespace, the friend is injected globally.

Using a namespace

You can refer to a name within a namespace in three ways: by specifying the name using the scope resolution operator, with a using directive to introduce all names in the namespace, or with a using declaration to introduce names one at a time.

Scope resolution

Any name in a namespace can be explicitly specified using the scope resolution operator in the same way that you can refer to the names within a class:

//: C10:ScopeResolution.cpp
namespace X {
  class Y {
    static int i;
    void f();
  class Z;
  void func();
int X::Y::i = 9;
class X::Z {
  int u, v, w;
  Z(int i);
  int g();
X::Z::Z(int i) { u = v = w = i; }
int X::Z::g() { return u = v = w = 0; }
void X::func() {
  X::Z a(1);
int main(){} ///:~

Notice that the definition X::Y::i could just as easily be referring to a data member of a class Y nested in a class X instead of a namespace X.

So far, namespaces look very much like classes.

The using directive

Because it can rapidly get tedious to type the full qualification for an identifier in a namespace, the using keyword allows you to import an entire namespace at once. When used in conjunction with the namespace keyword this is called a using directive. The using directive makes names appear as if they belong to the nearest enclosing namespace scope, so you can conveniently use the unqualified names. Consider a simple namespace:

//: C10:NamespaceInt.h
namespace Int {
  enum sign { positive, negative };
  class Integer {
    int i;
    sign s;
    Integer(int ii = 0) 
      : i(ii),
        s(i >= 0 ? positive : negative)
    sign getSign() const { return s; }
    void setSign(sign sgn) { s = sgn; }
    // ...
#endif // NAMESPACEINT_H ///:~

One use of the using directive is to bring all of the names in Int into another namespace, leaving those names nested within the namespace:

//: C10:NamespaceMath.h
#include "NamespaceInt.h"
namespace Math {
  using namespace Int;
  Integer a, b;
  Integer divide(Integer, Integer);
  // ...
#endif // NAMESPACEMATH_H ///:~

You can also declare all of the names in Int inside a function, but leave those names nested within the function:

//: C10:Arithmetic.cpp
#include "NamespaceInt.h"
void arithmetic() {
  using namespace Int;
  Integer x;
int main(){} ///:~

Without the using directive, all the names in the namespace would need to be fully qualified.

One aspect of the using directive may seem slightly counterintuitive at first. The visibility of the names introduced with a using directive is the scope in which the directive is made. But you can override the names from the using directive as if they’ve been declared globally to that scope!

//: C10:NamespaceOverriding1.cpp
#include "NamespaceMath.h"
int main() {
  using namespace Math;
  Integer a; // Hides Math::a;
  // Now scope resolution is necessary
  // to select Math::a :
} ///:~

Suppose you have a second namespace that contains some of the names in namespace Math:

//: C10:NamespaceOverriding2.h
#include "NamespaceInt.h"
namespace Calculation {
  using namespace Int;
  Integer divide(Integer, Integer);
  // ...

Since this namespace is also introduced with a using directive, you have the possibility of a collision. However, the ambiguity appears at the point of use of the name, not at the using directive:

//: C10:OverridingAmbiguity.cpp
#include "NamespaceMath.h"
#include "NamespaceOverriding2.h"
void s() {
  using namespace Math;
  using namespace Calculation;
  // Everything's ok until:
  //! divide(1, 2); // Ambiguity
int main() {} ///:~

Thus, it’s possible to write using directives to introduce a number of namespaces with conflicting names without ever producing an ambiguity.

The using declaration

You can inject names one at a time into the current scope with a using declaration. Unlike the using directive, which treats names as if they were declared globally to the scope, a using declaration is a declaration within the current scope. This means it can override names from a using directive:

//: C10:UsingDeclaration.h
namespace U {
  inline void f() {}
  inline void g() {}
namespace V {
  inline void f() {}
  inline void g() {}
#endif // USINGDECLARATION_H ///:~
//: C10:UsingDeclaration1.cpp
#include "UsingDeclaration.h"
void h() {
  using namespace U; // Using directive
  using V::f; // Using declaration
  f(); // Calls V::f();
  U::f(); // Must fully qualify to call
int main() {} ///:~

The using declaration just gives the fully specified name of the identifier, but no type information. This means that if the namespace contains a set of overloaded functions with the same name, the using declaration declares all the functions in the overloaded set.

You can put a using declaration anywhere a normal declaration can occur. A using declaration works like a normal declaration in all ways but one: because you don’t give an argument list, it’s possible for a using declaration to cause the overload of a function with the same argument types (which isn’t allowed with normal overloading). This ambiguity, however, doesn’t show up until the point of use, rather than the point of declaration.

A using declaration can also appear within a namespace, and it has the same effect as anywhere else – that name is declared within the space:

//: C10:UsingDeclaration2.cpp
#include "UsingDeclaration.h"
namespace Q {
  using U::f;
  using V::g;
  // ...
void m() {
  using namespace Q;
  f(); // Calls U::f();
  g(); // Calls V::g();
int main() {} ///:~

A using declaration is an alias, and it allows you to declare the same function in separate namespaces. If you end up re-declaring the same function by importing different namespaces, it’s OK – there won’t be any ambiguities or duplications.

The use of namespaces

Some of the rules above may seem a bit daunting at first, especially if you get the impression that you’ll be using them all the time. In general, however, you can get away with very simple usage of namespaces as long as you understand how they work. The key thing to remember is that when you introduce a global using directive (via a “using namespace” outside of any scope) you have thrown open the namespace for that file. This is usually fine for an implementation file (a “cpp” file) because the using directive is only in effect until the end of the compilation of that file. That is, it doesn’t affect any other files, so you can adjust the control of the namespaces one implementation file at a time. For example, if you discover a name clash because of too many using directives in a particular implementation file, it is a simple matter to change that file so that it uses explicit qualifications or using declarations to eliminate the clash, without modifying other implementation files.

Header files are a different issue. You virtually never want to introduce a global using directive into a header file, because that would mean that any other file that included your header would also have the namespace thrown open (and header files can include other header files).

So, in header files you should either use explicit qualification or scoped using directives and using declarations. This is the practice that you will find in this book, and by following it you will not “pollute” the global namespace and throw yourself back into the pre-namespace world of C++.

Static members in C++

There are times when you need a single storage space to be used by all objects of a class. In C, you would use a global variable, but this is not very safe. Global data can be modified by anyone, and its name can clash with other identical names in a large project. It would be ideal if the data could be stored as if it were global, but be hidden inside a class, and clearly associated with that class.

This is accomplished with static data members inside a class. There is a single piece of storage for a static data member, regardless of how many objects of that class you create. All objects share the same static storage space for that data member, so it is a way for them to “communicate” with each other. But the static data belongs to the class; its name is scoped inside the class and it can be public, private, or protected.

Defining storage for static data members

Because static data has a single piece of storage regardless of how many objects are created, that storage must be defined in a single place. The compiler will not allocate storage for you. The linker will report an error if a static data member is declared but not defined.

The definition must occur outside the class (no inlining is allowed), and only one definition is allowed. Thus, it is common to put it in the implementation file for the class. The syntax sometimes gives people trouble, but it is actually quite logical. For example, if you create a static data member inside a class like this:

class A {
  static int i;

Then you must define storage for that static data member in the definition file like this:

int A::i = 1;

If you were to define an ordinary global variable, you would say

int i = 1;

but here, the scope resolution operator and the class name are used to specify A::i.

Some people have trouble with the idea that A::i is private, and yet here’s something that seems to be manipulating it right out in the open. Doesn’t this break the protection mechanism? It’s a completely safe practice for two reasons. First, the only place this initialization is legal is in the definition. Indeed, if the static data were an object with a constructor, you would call the constructor instead of using the = operator. Second, once the definition has been made, the end-user cannot make a second definition – the linker will report an error. And the class creator is forced to create the definition or the code won’t link during testing. This ensures that the definition happens only once and that it’s in the hands of the class creator.

The entire initialization expression for a static member is in the scope of the class. For example,

//: C10:Statinit.cpp
// Scope of static initializer
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int x = 100;

class WithStatic {
  static int x;
  static int y;
  void print() const {
    cout << "WithStatic::x = " << x << endl;
    cout << "WithStatic::y = " << y << endl;

int WithStatic::x = 1;
int WithStatic::y = x + 1;
// WithStatic::x NOT ::x

int main() {
  WithStatic ws;
} ///:~

Here, the qualification WithStatic:: extends the scope of WithStatic to the entire definition.

static array initialization

Chapter 8 introduced the static const variable that allows you to define a constant value inside a class body. It’s also possible to create arrays of static objects, both const and non-const. The syntax is reasonably consistent:

//: C10:StaticArray.cpp
// Initializing static arrays in classes
class Values {
  // static consts are initialized in-place:
  static const int scSize = 100;
  static const long scLong = 100;
  // Automatic counting works with static arrays.
  // Arrays, Non-integral and non-const statics 
  // must be initialized externally:
  static const int scInts[];
  static const long scLongs[];
  static const float scTable[];
  static const char scLetters[];
  static int size;
  static const float scFloat;
  static float table[];
  static char letters[];

int Values::size = 100;
const float Values::scFloat = 1.1;

const int Values::scInts[] = {
  99, 47, 33, 11, 7

const long Values::scLongs[] = {
  99, 47, 33, 11, 7

const float Values::scTable[] = {
  1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.4

const char Values::scLetters[] = {
  'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e',
  'f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j'

float Values::table[4] = {
  1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.4

char Values::letters[10] = {
  'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e',
  'f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j'

int main() { Values v; } ///:~

With static consts of integral types you can provide the definitions inside the class, but for everything else (including arrays of integral types, even if they are static const) you must provide a single external definition for the member. These definitions have internal linkage, so they can be placed in header files. The syntax for initializing static arrays is the same as for any aggregate, including automatic counting.

You can also create static const objects of class types and arrays of such objects. However, you cannot initialize them using the “inline syntax” allowed for static consts of integral built-in types:

//: C10:StaticObjectArrays.cpp
// Static arrays of class objects
class X {
  int i;
  X(int ii) : i(ii) {}

class Stat {
  // This doesn't work, although 
  // you might want it to:
//!  static const X x(100);
  // Both const and non-const static class 
  // objects must be initialized externally:
  static X x2;
  static X xTable2[];
  static const X x3;
  static const X xTable3[];

X Stat::x2(100);

X Stat::xTable2[] = {
  X(1), X(2), X(3), X(4)

const X Stat::x3(100);

const X Stat::xTable3[] = {
  X(1), X(2), X(3), X(4)

int main() { Stat v; } ///:~

The initialization of both const and non-const static arrays of class objects must be performed the same way, following the typical static definition syntax.

Nested and local classes

You can easily put static data members in classes that are nested inside other classes. The definition of such members is an intuitive and obvious extension – you simply use another level of scope resolution. However, you cannot have static data members inside local classes (a local class is a class defined inside a function). Thus,

//: C10:Local.cpp
// Static members & local classes
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

// Nested class CAN have static data members:
class Outer {
  class Inner {
    static int i; // OK

int Outer::Inner::i = 47;

// Local class cannot have static data members:
void f() {
  class Local {
//! static int i;  // Error
    // (How would you define i?)
  } x;

int main() { Outer x; f(); } ///:~

You can see the immediate problem with a static member in a local class: How do you describe the data member at file scope in order to define it? In practice, local classes are used very rarely.

static member functions

You can also create static member functions that, like static data members, work for the class as a whole rather than for a particular object of a class. Instead of making a global function that lives in and “pollutes” the global or local namespace, you bring the function inside the class. When you create a static member function, you are expressing an association with a particular class.

You can call a static member function in the ordinary way, with the dot or the arrow, in association with an object. However, it’s more typical to call a static member function by itself, without any specific object, using the scope-resolution operator, like this:

//: C10:SimpleStaticMemberFunction.cpp 
class X {
  static void f(){};

int main() {
} ///:~

When you see static member functions in a class, remember that the designer intended that function to be conceptually associated with the class as a whole.

A static member function cannot access ordinary data members, only static data members. It can call only other static member functions. Normally, the address of the current object (this) is quietly passed in when any member function is called, but a static member has no this, which is the reason it cannot access ordinary members. Thus, you get the tiny increase in speed afforded by a global function because a static member function doesn’t have the extra overhead of passing this. At the same time you get the benefits of having the function inside the class.

For data members, static indicates that only one piece of storage for member data exists for all objects of a class. This parallels the use of static to define objects inside a function to mean that only one copy of a local variable is used for all calls of that function.

Here’s an example showing static data members and static member functions used together:

//: C10:StaticMemberFunctions.cpp
class X {
  int i;
  static int j;
  X(int ii = 0) : i(ii) {
     // Non-static member function can access
     // static member function or data:
    j = i;
  int val() const { return i; }
  static int incr() {
    //! i++; // Error: static member function
    // cannot access non-static member data
    return ++j;
  static int f() {
    //! val(); // Error: static member function
    // cannot access non-static member function
    return incr(); // OK -- calls static

int X::j = 0;

int main() {
  X x;
  X* xp = &x;
  X::f(); // Only works with static members
} ///:~

Because they have no this pointer, static member functions can neither access non-static data members nor call non-static member functions.

Notice in main( ) that a static member can be selected using the usual dot or arrow syntax, associating that function with an object, but also with no object (because a static member is associated with a class, not a particular object), using the class name and scope resolution operator.

Here’s an interesting feature: Because of the way initialization happens for static member objects, you can put a static data member of the same class inside that class. Here’s an example that allows only a single object of type Egg to exist by making the constructor private. You can access that object, but you can’t create any new Egg objects:

//: C10:Singleton.cpp
// Static member of same type, ensures that
// only one object of this type exists.
// Also referred to as the "singleton" pattern.
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Egg {
  static Egg e;
  int i;
  Egg(int ii) : i(ii) {}
  Egg(const Egg&); // Prevent copy-construction
  static Egg* instance() { return &e; }
  int val() const { return i; }

Egg Egg::e(47);

int main() {
//!  Egg x(1); // Error -- can't create an Egg
  // You can access the single instance:
  cout << Egg::instance()->val() << endl;
} ///:~

The initialization for E happens after the class declaration is complete, so the compiler has all the information it needs to allocate storage and make the constructor call.

To completely prevent the creation of any other objects, something else has been added: a second private constructor called the copy-constructor. At this point in the book, you cannot know why this is necessary since the copy constructor will not be introduced until the next chapter. However, as a sneak preview, if you were to remove the copy-constructor defined in the example above, you’d be able to create an Egg object like this:

Egg e = *Egg::instance();
Egg e2(*Egg::instance());

Both of these use the copy-constructor, so to seal off that possibility the copy-constructor is declared as private (no definition is necessary because it never gets called). A large portion of the next chapter is a discussion of the copy-constructor so it should become clear to you then.

Static initialization dependency

Within a specific translation unit, the order of initialization of static objects is guaranteed to be the order in which the object definitions appear in that translation unit. The order of destruction is guaranteed to be the reverse of the order of initialization.

However, there is no guarantee concerning the order of initialization of static objects across translation units, and the language provides no way to specify this order. This can cause significant problems. As an example of an instant disaster (which will halt primitive operating systems and kill the process on sophisticated ones), if one file contains

// First file
#include <fstream>
std::ofstream out("out.txt");

and another file uses the out object in one of its initializers

// Second file
#include <fstream>
extern std::ofstream out;
class Oof {
  Oof() { std::out << "ouch"; }
} oof;

the program may work, and it may not. If the programming environment builds the program so that the first file is initialized before the second file, then there will be no problem. However, if the second file is initialized before the first, the constructor for Oof relies upon the existence of out, which hasn’t been constructed yet and this causes chaos.

This problem only occurs with static object initializers that depend on each other. The statics in a translation unit are initialized before the first invocation of a function in that unit – but it could be after main( ). You can’t be sure about the order of initialization of static objects if they’re in different files.

A subtler example can be found in the ARM.[47] In one file you have at the global scope:

extern int y;
int x = y + 1;

and in a second file you have at the global scope:

extern int x;
int y = x + 1;

For all static objects, the linking-loading mechanism guarantees a static initialization to zero before the dynamic initialization specified by the programmer takes place. In the previous example, zeroing of the storage occupied by the fstream out object has no special meaning, so it is truly undefined until the constructor is called. However, with built-in types, initialization to zero does have meaning, and if the files are initialized in the order they are shown above, y begins as statically initialized to zero, so x becomes one, and y is dynamically initialized to two. However, if the files are initialized in the opposite order, x is statically initialized to zero, y is dynamically initialized to one, and x then becomes two.

Programmers must be aware of this because they can create a program with static initialization dependencies and get it working on one platform, but move it to another compiling environment where it suddenly, mysteriously, doesn’t work.

What to do

There are three approaches to dealing with this problem:

  1. Don’t do it. Avoiding static initialization dependencies is the best solution.
  2. If you must do it, put the critical static object definitions in a single file, so you can portably control their initialization by putting them in the correct order.
  3. If you’re convinced it’s unavoidable to scatter static objects across translation units – as in the case of a library, where you can’t control the programmer who uses it – there are two programmatic techniques to solve the problem.

Technique one

This technique was pioneered by Jerry Schwarz while creating the iostream library (because the definitions for cin, cout, and cerr are static and live in a separate file). It’s actually inferior to the second technique but it’s been around a long time and so you may come across code that uses it; thus it’s important that you understand how it works.

This technique requires an additional class in your library header file. This class is responsible for the dynamic initialization of your library’s static objects. Here is a simple example:

//: C10:Initializer.h
// Static initialization technique
#include <iostream>
extern int x; // Declarations, not definitions
extern int y;

class Initializer {
  static int initCount;
  Initializer() {
    std::cout << "Initializer()" << std::endl;
    // Initialize first time only
    if(initCount++ == 0) {
      std::cout << "performing initialization"
                << std::endl;
      x = 100;
      y = 200;
  ~Initializer() {
    std::cout << "~Initializer()" << std::endl;
    // Clean up last time only
    if(--initCount == 0) {
      std::cout << "performing cleanup" 
                << std::endl;
      // Any necessary cleanup here

// The following creates one object in each
// file where Initializer.h is included, but that
// object is only visible within that file:
static Initializer init;
#endif // INITIALIZER_H ///:~

The declarations for x and y announce only that these objects exist, but they don’t allocate storage for the objects. However, the definition for the Initializer init allocates storage for that object in every file where the header is included. But because the name is static (controlling visibility this time, not the way storage is allocated; storage is at file scope by default), it is visible only within that translation unit, so the linker will not complain about multiple definition errors.

Here is the file containing the definitions for x, y, and initCount:

//: C10:InitializerDefs.cpp {O}
// Definitions for Initializer.h
#include "Initializer.h"
// Static initialization will force
// all these values to zero:
int x;
int y;
int Initializer::initCount;

(Of course, a file static instance of init is also placed in this file when the header is included.) Suppose that two other files are created by the library user:

//: C10:Initializer.cpp {O}
// Static initialization
#include "Initializer.h"


//: C10:Initializer2.cpp
//{L} InitializerDefs Initializer
// Static initialization
#include "Initializer.h"
using namespace std;

int main() {
  cout << "inside main()" << endl;
  cout << "leaving main()" << endl;
} ///:~

Now it doesn’t matter which translation unit is initialized first. The first time a translation unit containing Initializer.h is initialized, initCount will be zero so the initialization will be performed. (This depends heavily on the fact that the static storage area is set to zero before any dynamic initialization takes place.) For all the rest of the translation units, initCount will be nonzero and the initialization will be skipped. Cleanup happens in the reverse order, and ~Initializer( ) ensures that it will happen only once.

This example used built-in types as the global static objects. The technique also works with classes, but those objects must then be dynamically initialized by the Initializer class. One way to do this is to create the classes without constructors and destructors, but instead with initialization and cleanup member functions using different names. A more common approach, however, is to have pointers to objects and to create them using new inside Initializer( ).

Technique two

Long after technique one was in use, someone (I don’t know who) came up with the technique explained in this section, which is much simpler and cleaner than technique one. The fact that it took so long to discover is a tribute to the complexity of C++.

This technique relies on the fact that static objects inside functions are initialized the first time (only) that the function is called. Keep in mind that the problem we’re really trying to solve here is not when the static objects are initialized (that can be controlled separately) but rather making sure that the initialization happens in the proper order.

This technique is very neat and clever. For any initialization dependency, you place a static object inside a function that returns a reference to that object. This way, the only way you can access the static object is by calling the function, and if that object needs to access other static objects on which it is dependent it must call their functions. And the first time a function is called, it forces the initialization to take place. The order of static initialization is guaranteed to be correct because of the design of the code, not because of an arbitrary order established by the linker.

To set up an example, here are two classes that depend on each other. The first one contains a bool that is initialized only by the constructor, so you can tell if the constructor has been called for a static instance of the class (the static storage area is initialized to zero at program startup, which produces a false value for the bool if the constructor has not been called):

//: C10:Dependency1.h
#include <iostream>

class Dependency1 {
  bool init;
  Dependency1() : init(true) {
    std::cout << "Dependency1 construction" 
              << std::endl;
  void print() const {
    std::cout << "Dependency1 init: " 
              << init << std::endl;
#endif // DEPENDENCY1_H ///:~

The constructor also announces when it is being called, and you can print( ) the state of the object to find out if it has been initialized.

The second class is initialized from an object of the first class, which is what will cause the dependency:

//: C10:Dependency2.h
#include "Dependency1.h"

class Dependency2 {
  Dependency1 d1;
  Dependency2(const Dependency1& dep1): d1(dep1){
    std::cout << "Dependency2 construction ";
  void print() const { d1.print(); }
#endif // DEPENDENCY2_H ///:~

The constructor announces itself and prints the state of the d1 object so you can see if it has been initialized by the time the constructor is called.

To demonstrate what can go wrong, the following file first puts the static object definitions in the wrong order, as they would occur if the linker happened to initialize the Dependency2 object before the Dependency1 object. Then the order is reversed to show how it works correctly if the order happens to be “right.” Lastly, technique two is demonstrated.

To provide more readable output, the function separator( ) is created. The trick is that you can’t call a function globally unless that function is being used to perform the initialization of a variable, so separator( ) returns a dummy value that is used to initialize a couple of global variables.

//: C10:Technique2.cpp
#include "Dependency2.h"
using namespace std;

// Returns a value so it can be called as
// a global initializer:
int separator() {
  cout << "---------------------" << endl;
  return 1;

// Simulate the dependency problem:
extern Dependency1 dep1;
Dependency2 dep2(dep1);
Dependency1 dep1;
int x1 = separator();

// But if it happens in this order it works OK:
Dependency1 dep1b;
Dependency2 dep2b(dep1b);
int x2 = separator();

// Wrapping static objects in functions succeeds
Dependency1& d1() {
  static Dependency1 dep1;
  return dep1;

Dependency2& d2() {
  static Dependency2 dep2(d1());
  return dep2;

int main() {
  Dependency2& dep2 = d2();
} ///:~

The functions d1( ) and d2( ) wrap static instances of Dependency1 and Dependency2 objects. Now, the only way you can get to the static objects is by calling the functions and that forces static initialization on the first function call. This means that initialization is guaranteed to be correct, which you’ll see when you run the program and look at the output.

Here’s how you would actually organize the code to use the technique. Ordinarily, the static objects would be defined in separate files (because you’re forced to for some reason; remember that defining the static objects in separate files is what causes the problem), so instead you define the wrapping functions in separate files. But they’ll need to be declared in header files:

//: C10:Dependency1StatFun.h
#include "Dependency1.h"
extern Dependency1& d1();
#endif // DEPENDENCY1STATFUN_H ///:~

Actually, the “extern” is redundant for the function declaration. Here’s the second header file:

//: C10:Dependency2StatFun.h
#include "Dependency2.h"
extern Dependency2& d2();
#endif // DEPENDENCY2STATFUN_H ///:~

Now, in the implementation files where you would previously have placed the static object definitions, you instead place the wrapping function definitions:

//: C10:Dependency1StatFun.cpp {O}
#include "Dependency1StatFun.h"
Dependency1& d1() {
  static Dependency1 dep1;
  return dep1;
} ///:~

Presumably, other code might also be placed in these files. Here’s the other file:

//: C10:Dependency2StatFun.cpp {O}
#include "Dependency1StatFun.h"
#include "Dependency2StatFun.h"
Dependency2& d2() {
  static Dependency2 dep2(d1());
  return dep2;
} ///:~

So now there are two files that could be linked in any order and if they contained ordinary static objects could produce any order of initialization. But since they contain the wrapping functions, there’s no threat of incorrect initialization:

//: C10:Technique2b.cpp
//{L} Dependency1StatFun Dependency2StatFun
#include "Dependency2StatFun.h"
int main() { d2(); } ///:~

When you run this program you’ll see that the initialization of the Dependency1 static object always happens before the initialization of the Dependency2 static object. You can also see that this is a much simpler approach than technique one.

You might be tempted to write d1( ) and d2( ) as inline functions inside their respective header files, but this is something you must definitely not do. An inline function can be duplicated in every file in which it appears – and this duplication includes the static object definition. Because inline functions automatically default to internal linkage, this would result in having multiple static objects across the various translation units, which would certainly cause problems. So you must ensure that there is only one definition of each wrapping function, and this means not making the wrapping functions inline.

Alternate linkage specifications

What happens if you’re writing a program in C++ and you want to use a C library? If you make the C function declaration,

float f(int a, char b);

the C++ compiler will decorate this name to something like _f_int_char to support function overloading (and type-safe linkage). However, the C compiler that compiled your C library has most definitely not decorated the name, so its internal name will be _f. Thus, the linker will not be able to resolve your C++ calls to f( ).

The escape mechanism provided in C++ is the alternate linkage specification, which was produced in the language by overloading the extern keyword. The extern is followed by a string that specifies the linkage you want for the declaration, followed by the declaration:

extern "C" float f(int a, char b);

This tells the compiler to give C linkage to f( ) so that the compiler doesn’t decorate the name. The only two types of linkage specifications supported by the standard are “C” and “C++,” but compiler vendors have the option of supporting other languages in the same way.

If you have a group of declarations with alternate linkage, put them inside braces, like this:

extern "C" {
  float f(int a, char b);
  double d(int a, char b);

Or, for a header file,

extern "C" {
#include "Myheader.h"

Most C++ compiler vendors handle the alternate linkage specifications inside their header files that work with both C and C++, so you don’t have to worry about it.


The static keyword can be confusing because in some situations it controls the location of storage, and in others it controls visibility and linkage of a name.

With the introduction of C++ namespaces, you have an improved and more flexible alternative to control the proliferation of names in large projects.

The use of static inside classes is one more way to control names in a program. The names do not clash with global names, and the visibility and access is kept within the program, giving you greater control in the maintenance of your code.


Solutions to selected exercises can be found in the electronic document The Thinking in C++ Annotated Solution Guide, available for a small fee from www.BruceEckel.com.

  1. Create a function with a static variable that is a pointer (with a default argument of zero). When the caller provides a value for this argument it is used to point at the beginning of an array of int. If you call the function with a zero argument (using the default argument), the function returns the next value in the array, until it sees a “-1” value in the array (to act as an end-of-array indicator). Exercise this function in main( ).
  2. Create a function that returns the next value in a Fibonacci sequence every time you call it. Add an argument that is a bool with a default value of false such that when you give the argument with true it “resets” the function to the beginning of the Fibonacci sequence. Exercise this function in main( ).
  3. Create a class that holds an array of ints. Set the size of the array using static const int inside the class. Add a const int variable, and initialize it in the constructor initializer list; make the constructor inline. Add a static int member variable and initialize it to a specific value. Add a static member function that prints the static data member. Add an inline member function called print( ) to print out all the values in the array and to call the static member function. Exercise this class in main( ).
  4. Create a class called Monitor that keeps track of the number of times that its incident( ) member function has been called. Add a print( ) member function that displays the number of incidents. Now create a global function (not a member function) containing a static Monitor object. Each time you call the function it should call incident( ), then print( ) member function to display the incident count. Exercise the function in main( ).
  5. Modify the Monitor class from Exercise 4 so that you can decrement( ) the incident count. Make a class Monitor2 that takes as a constructor argument a pointer to a Monitor1, and which stores that pointer and calls incident( ) and print( ). In the destructor for Monitor2, call decrement( ) and print( ). Now make a static object of Monitor2 inside a function. Inside main( ), experiment with calling the function and not calling the function to see what happens with the destructor of Monitor2.
  6. Make a global object of Monitor2 and see what happens.
  7. Create a class with a destructor that prints a message and then calls exit( ). Create a global object of this class and see what happens.
  8. In StaticDestructors.cpp, experiment with the order of constructor and destructor calls by calling f( ) and g( ) inside main( ) in different orders. Does your compiler get it right?
  9. In StaticDestructors.cpp, test the default error handling of your implementation by turning the original definition of out into an extern declaration and putting the actual definition after the definition of a (whose Obj constructor sends information to out). Make sure there’s nothing else important running on your machine when you run the program or that your machine will handle faults robustly.
  10. Prove that file static variables in header files don’t clash with each other when included in more than one cpp file.
  11. Create a simple class containing an int, a constructor that initializes the int from its argument, a member function to set the int from its argument, and a print( ) function that prints the int. Put your class in a header file, and include the header file in two cpp files. In one cpp file make an instance of your class, and in the other declare that identifier extern and test it inside main( ). Remember, you’ll have to link the two object files or else the linker won’t find the object.
  12. Make the instance of the object in Exercise 11 static and verify that it cannot be found by the linker because of this.
  13. Declare a function in a header file. Define the function in one cpp file and call it inside main( ) in a second cpp file. Compile and verify that it works. Now change the function definition so that it is static and verify that the linker cannot find it.
  14. Modify Volatile.cpp from Chapter 8 to make comm::isr( ) something that could actually work as an interrupt service routine. Hint: an interrupt service routine doesn’t take any arguments.
  15. Write and compile a simple program that uses the auto and register keywords.
  16. Create a header file containing a namespace. Inside the namespace create several function declarations. Now create a second header file that includes the first one and continues the namespace, adding several more function declarations. Now create a cpp file that includes the second header file. Alias your namespace to another (shorter) name. Inside a function definition, call one of your functions using scope resolution. Inside a separate function definition, write a using directive to introduce your namespace into that function scope, and show that you don’t need scope resolution to call the functions from your namespace.
  17. Create a header file with an unnamed namespace. Include the header in two separate cpp files and show that an unnamed space is unique for each translation unit.
  18. Using the header file from Exercise 17, show that the names in an unnamed namespace are automatically available in a translation unit without qualification.
  19. Modify FriendInjection.cpp to add a definition for the friend function and to call the function inside main( ).
  20. In Arithmetic.cpp, demonstrate that the using directive does not extend outside the function in which the directive was made.
  21. Repair the problem in OverridingAmbiguity.cpp, first with scope resolution, then instead with a using declaration that forces the compiler to choose one of the identical function names.
  22. In two header files, create two namespaces, each containing a class (with all inline definitions) with a name identical to that in the other namespace. Create a cpp file that includes both header files. Create a function, and inside the function use the using directive to introduce both namespaces. Try creating an object of the class and see what happens. Make the using directives global (outside of the function) to see if it makes any difference. Repair the problem using scope resolution, and create objects of both classes.
  23. Repair the problem in Exercise 22 with a using declaration that forces the compiler to choose one of the identical class names.
  24. Extract the namespace declarations in BobsSuperDuperLibrary.cpp and UnnamedNamespaces.cpp and put them in separate header files, giving the unnamed namespace a name in the process. In a third header file create a new namespace that combines the elements of the other two namespaces with using declarations. In main( ), introduce your new namespace with a using directive and access all the elements of your namespace.
  25. Create a header file that includes <string> and <iostream> but does not use any using directives or using declarations. Add “include guards” as you’ve seen in the header files in this book. Create a class with all inline functions that contains a string member, with a constructor that initializes that string from its argument and a print( ) function that displays the string. Create a cpp file and exercise your class in main( ).
  26. Create a class containing a static double and long. Write a static member function that prints out the values.
  27. Create a class containing an int, a constructor that initializes the int from its argument, and a print( ) function to display the int. Now create a second class that contains a static object of the first one. Add a static member function that calls the static object’s print( ) function. Exercise your class in main( ).
  28. Create a class containing both a const and a non-const static array of int. Write static methods to print out the arrays. Exercise your class in main( ).
  29. Create a class containing a string, with a constructor that initializes the string from its argument, and a print( ) function to display the string. Create another class that contains both const and non-const static arrays of objects of the first class, and static methods to print out these arrays. Exercise this second class in main( ).
  30. Create a struct that contains an int and a default constructor that initializes the int to zero. Make this struct local to a function. Inside that function, create an array of objects of your struct and demonstrate that each int in the array has automatically been initialized to zero.
  31. Create a class that represents a printer connection, and that only allows you to have one printer.
  32. In a header file, create a class Mirror that contains two data members: a pointer to a Mirror object and a bool. Give it two constructors: the default constructor initializes the bool to true and the Mirror pointer to zero. The second constructor takes as an argument a pointer to a Mirror object, which it assigns to the object’s internal pointer; it sets the bool to false. Add a member function test( ): if the object’s pointer is nonzero, it returns the value of test( ) called through the pointer. If the pointer is zero, it returns the bool. Now create five cpp files, each of which includes the Mirror header. The first cpp file defines a global Mirror object using the default constructor. The second file declares the object in the first file as extern, and defines a global Mirror object using the second constructor, with a pointer to the first object. Keep doing this until you reach the last file, which will also contain a global object definition. In that file, main( ) should call the test( ) function and report the result. If the result is true, find out how to change the linking order for your linker and change it until the result is false.
  33. Repair the problem in Exercise 32 using technique one shown in this book.
  34. Repair the problem in Exercise 32 using technique two shown in this book.
  35. Without including a header file, declare the function puts( ) from the Standard C Library. Call this function from main( ).

[47]Bjarne Stroustrup and Margaret Ellis, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual, Addison-Wesley, 1990, pp. 20-21.

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